Deserts, such as the Sahara desert, are areas of the earth’s surface that receive less than 25 cm of rain each year and are areas that contain little or no vegetation. Deserts are considered useful natural laboratories for studying the interactions of wind and sometimes water on the arid surfaces of the planet. They cover valued mineral deposits that used to be formed in the arid atmosphere or that were exposed by erosion.

The main characteristics of the Sahara desert are the following:

  • It happens to be the largest desert in the world.
  • It happens to be one of the driest deserts in the world.
  • It has extreme temperatures.
  • There are few animals and plants.
  • The tribes of the Tuarecs and the Berbers live there.
  • Their soils are extremely low in organic matter.
  • Its main composition is gravel, sand and dunes.

The climate is characterized by sunny days and cool nights. The precipitations are extremely strange and when they occur they happen in a brutal way. The influence of the ocean produces a higher relative humidity in the atmosphere, which is why mists are frequent on the coasts.

During the summer of the Sahara, the climate becomes hotter and extremely dry, so the temperatures are impressive and the temperature difference between day and night is very high. The Máxim temperature to can exceed the 46 ° C in August and minimum rub against the 18 ° C. The maritime influence is quite noticeable so that the average of the maximum temperatures is 26 ° C on the coasts and 37 ° C in the interior.

Sahara desert

During the day the heat is extreme and the sun’s rays hit the earth intensely. Temperatures are influenced by sunlight, reaching maximum temperatures of 46 ° C, even more. There are no sources of water and no frequent rain, so the heat and humidity are extreme.

At night, the temperature in sahara desert manages to drop considerably, even some days, it is cold. The skies are clear for what is actually a star show.

Sahara desert fauna

You can find some animals such as camels and goats as they are resistant to the climate. The yellow scorpion which is extremely poisonous. Various species of fox, the white antelope, dorcas gazelles can survive in the desert. It is also common to find sand vipers, African wild dogs, some crocodiles, and the African silver-billed songbirds.


With regard to vegetation and the scarcity of water, in this desert there is practically no vegetation. Plants must find a way to adapt to the environment and for this reason they seek to reduce evaporation and increase water absorption. For this reason they have very small leaves, very long roots and accumulate water in the tissues and leaves covered in wax. You can find plants such as the Jericho roses, the Cystanche, the zilla, and the Sodom apple tree.

The main plant that you can find is the date palm that was introduced by the Arabs and that has served as a source of food, for construction, as protection against the sun and other applications.